The future agreement is expected to cover priority areas such as: in the first half of the 1980s, the economic crisis, falling commodity prices and rising debt have reduced ACP countries. On the European side, there were also political tensions caused by discussions on the British contribution to the European budget. In this context, Lomé III (1984) marked an important development. A number of new elements have shown how the aid effectiveness test has been put in place to replace NOEI-related ideas. Firstly, the political dialogue initiated at the Commission`s request has forced a preliminary discussion with the recipient countries on the allocation of EU funds. This was accompanied by an extension of the aid provided. While the Commission intended to deepen the dialogue in order to maximise the effectiveness of EU aid, European countries wanted greater control over the use of funds. The notion of the imposition of development, based on agriculture and food self-sufficiency, not industry, began to take hold, caused by the famines that hit Africa. Finally, despite opposition from ACP countries who feared interference by European countries, the preamble to the Convention introduced a reference to the principles of the UN Charter and fundamental human rights. The Interim EPA between the EU and the Pacific ACP countries was signed in July 2009 by Papua New Guinea and Fiji in December 2009. Papua New Guinea ratified it in May 2011. In July 2014, Fiji decided to begin provisional implementation of the agreement. Of the 14 Pacific countries, Papua New Guinea and Fiji account for the bulk of EU-Pacific trade.
The Lomé Convention is a trade and assistance agreement between the European Economic Community (EEC) and 71 countries in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP), first signed in Lomé (Togo) in February 1975. The EU will work towards a comprehensively revised agreement, based on a common basis at THE ACP level, in conjunction with three bespoke regional partnerships for Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific. Also in July 2014, negotiations with the countries of the Southern African Development Community concluded successfully. The agreement was signed on 10 June 2016 in Kasane, Botswana. It entered the provisional application on 10 October 2016. For the East and Southern Africa region, Mauritius, Seychelles, Zimbabwe and Madagascar signed an EPA in 2009. The agreement has been implemented on an interim basis since 14 May 2012. In a 1996 Green Paper, the Commission defined the founding principles of the Convention, which would have replaced Lomé IV (which was due to expire in February 2000) in order to bring it in line with the rules of the new World Trade Organization (WTO). Negotiations began in September 1998 and ended in June 2000 with the signing of the Cotonou Agreement for a period of 20 years.
The agreement introduced a number of new elements: it allowed non-state actors (private sector, trade unions, civil society) to participate in the definition of development strategies; Trade policy was no longer seen as an aid instrument, but as an objective in itself; and the tariff advantages granted to ACP countries have had to be phased out because they are at odds with WTO rules. It was planned to replace them with economic partnership agreements based on the principle of reciprocity, although the implementation of these agreements was complicated, with most ACP countries fearing to open their markets. Stabex and Sysmin have been replaced by a long-term development fund managed under more difficult-to-control conditions. Finally, the agreement contains clauses on cooperation on the prevention of weapons of mass destruction, the fight against terrorism and the support of the International Court of Justice, so it is essential to coordinate the policy of cooperation with the Community`s foreign policy, developed after 1992 with the Maastricht Treaty and the CFSP (common foreign and security policy).